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Mongolia Culture, Geography and History
Culture and Customs of Mongolia
Mongolia is known for its strong nomadic traditions, but life has recently become more urbanised for many citizens in this sparsely populated country. Almost 50% of the population live in or near an urban centre, while the other 50% live a semi-nomadic lifestyle in the countryside; although, settled agricultural communities can be found in rural areas and are growing each year. Despite this change in lifestyle, the rich nomadic heritage remains strong and traditional Mongol songs, dance, stories and clothing are still celebrated, especially during festivals and national holidays.
Many Mongolian people are Buddhist - this is evident in the monasteries and temples that populate the urban areas as well as the remote regions. Shamanism is also still in existence in some of the more isolated regions of Mongolia where the proud cultures have been somewhat protected from modern influences.
A common thread that links most Mongolians is respect for family and the importance of hospitality. Probably borne from the nomadic way of life, sharing with others and receiving guests with grace is a common theme that recurs in Mongolian society. Harsh conditions, a changeable climate and the uncertainty of nomadic life mean that most Mongolians go out of their way to provide a safe haven for family, friends and guests. It is for this reason that turning down food or not accepting a warm welcome is not advisable.
Geography and Environment of Mongolia
Bordered by China and Russia, Mongolia is a land of mountains and plateaus, grasslands, marshes and deserts. Even though Mongolia is landlocked, Lake Khovsgol (one of Asia’s largest freshwater lakes) provides 70% of Mongolia’s fresh water. This ancient lake provides much of the drinking water for the animal and human population, with the surrounding areas providing lush habitats for wolves, ibex, deer and bears. Due to Mongolia’s significant seismic activity, there are also many hot springs and volcanoes throughout the country.
Mongolia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, leaving much space for nomadic herders to roam. The fast-growing capital city of Ulaanbaatar is an exception, being home to high-density housing, universities and financial institutions. As an economic centre and transport hub, Ulaanbaatar has all the modern conveniences expected of an international city.
History and Government of Mongolia
The area now known as Mongolia has been inhabited for more than 800,000 years. Archaeological evidence, such as rock paintings, points to groups of hunters and gatherers living throughout Mongolia in prehistoric times. Mongolia’s early history is coloured by battles and invasions, with various nomadic empires laying claim to the land. The most famous of these was the Mongol Empire, created by Genghis Khan in 1206. This empire was known as the largest land-based empire of its time and had great success invading and claiming foreign territory, before declining due to infighting, disunity and the rise of neighbouring territories.
Modern Mongolia is an interesting mix of Mongol, Chinese and Russian influences. Rising up to gain independence from decades of communist rule, modern Mongolia is becoming more fast-paced and globalised as the years go by. Holding its first democratic election in 1990, Mongolia now enjoys a time of relative peace and stability, with tourism, agriculture and mineral resources providing more abundance and improvements in infrastructure and living conditions.
Mongolia at a glance
- Ulaanbaatar (population 1.2 million)
- 3 million
- (GMT+08:00) Irkutsk, Ulaan Bataar
- Type C (European 2-pin), Type E (French 2-pin, female earth)
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